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Resources home Text Checker. Resources Resources home Text Checker. English American English. Enter search text. Extra Examples Try to have a broad spread of investments, rather than concentrating on one industry. The questionnaire revealed a wide spread of opinions on the issues. Check pronunciation: spread. Regardless of how much the odds fluctuate after you have placed your bet, your potential returns will not change. Before the game starts, the odds on the same market drop to 1. Flea: An annoying bettor who wants something for nothing such as being comped for a small wager.

Fold: When preceded by a number, a fold indicates the number of selections in an accumulator e. Forecast: A wager that involves correctly predicting the 1st and 2nd place finish for a particular event. This bet can be straight, reversed or permed. French Odds: Expression of odds as Full Cover: All the doubles, trebles and accumulators involved in a given number of selections.

Goliath: A multiple consisting of bets 28 doubles, 56 trebles, 70 4-folds, 56 5-folds, 28 6-folds, 8 7-folds and 1 8-fold involving 8 selections in different events. Grand Salami: The grand total of goals scored in all the ice hockey games of the day. Handicap: A method used by bookmakers to make a one-sided event become a more attractive betting proposition. Handicapper: A person who studies factors such as statistics, injuries, weather and news to predict the outcome of events.

Heinz: A multiple bet consisting of 57 bets 15 doubles, 20 trebles, 15 4-folds, 6 5-folds and 1 6-fold involving 6 horses in different races. Hook: The half point in point spreads such as 6. Hot Game: A game that is drawing a lot of action on one side from knowledgeable handicappers.

If Bet: A bet that is placed only if a certain outcome of a previous bet comes true. In the Money: Describes the horses in a race that finish 1st, 2nd and 3rd and sometimes 4th or the horses on which money will be paid to bettors, depending on the place terms. Example: For a soccer game, it would be possible mid game to place bets on factors such as who will be awarded the next corner or which player will score the next goal.

The odds change during the game depending on the performance and positioning of the team and players. Laying the Points: Wagering on a favorite and thereby laying giving points or odds to the opposing side. Listed Pitchers: A baseball bet which will be placed only if both of the pitchers scheduled to start a game actually start.

If they do not, the bet is cancelled. Long Odds: Odds such as As a consolation if you only have one winner it will be paid at double the odds. Margin: The amount a competitor in an event finishes in front of another competitor. Middle: Betting both sides of a game at different prices with the hope of winning both wagers.

Money Back Bets: Only offered on major events, these bets promise to refund your stake as a free bet if an event advertised in the offer actually happens. Only pre-match single bets qualify for refunds, provided they are placed on specified game markets. Example: A bookmaker promises to refund all losing 1st goalscorer, last goalscorer, correct score and scorecast singles on Bulgaria vs. England and Ireland vs. Slovakia matches if England or Ireland lead at half-time but fail to win their match.

All the selections at least two made must win for the bettor to win the multiples bet. Mutuel Pool: The total amount bet to win, place or show in a race. It can also be the total amount bet on a Daily Double, Exacta, Quinella, etc. Newbie: A person who is new to gambling or to forums. Newspaper Line: The lines which appear in various daily newspapers. Novelty Betting: Involves betting on events that have nothing to do with sports such as popular TV shows Big Brother and X Factor , wagering on current affairs, as well as Royal Wedding specials and presidential elections.

Odds Man: At horse racing tracks where computers are not in use, an employee who calculates the changing of odds as betting progresses. Off Lines: The amount the Las Vegas point spread differs from the lines of other sportsbetting sites, which have derived their data from various computer software systems.

Off the Board: 1 A game in which bookmakers are not accepting any more wagers. Outlaw Line: An early line which is not an official line. Outright Bet: A bet placed on the outcome of an entire league or competition rather than on an individual game. Outright bets are usually placed before the season starts but are also available even during the course of the season.

Outsiders: The competitors that are not expected to win. The opposite to the favorite, usually offered at lengthy odds. Overlay: When the odds of a proposition are in favor of the bettor not the house. Such as a horse whose odds are high in comparison to its perceived chances of winning the race.

All selections must be correct for the parlay to win. In the event of a push or a game cancellation, the parlay reverts to the next lower number e. Patent: A multiple bet consisting of 7 bets involving 3 selections in different events. A single on each selection, plus 3 doubles and 1 treble.

Place: 1 The term used to describe a 2nd place finish. Pleaser: A bet on two or more teams where the line on each team is adjusted against the favor of the bettor but with a higher payout. Just like a parlay, all selections must be correct for the pleaser wager to win. Point Spread: Most common in basketball and football games, a point spread can be considered a handicap and refers to providing a team underdog with a head start.

Example: Two NBA teams are playing with one being a large underdog. To make the bet more even, the bookmaker might require the favorite to win by more than 12 points for the game to be fair. Pool: The total amount bet to win, place or show, or in a daily double for a race. Post Time: Normally used in horse racing, it is the scheduled starting time of a race.

The wagers use the money line format and might include who scores the first touchdown in the Super Bowl, who will win the next presidential election, or whether or not someone on trial will be found guilty. Puck Line: Giving odds of a goal spread in ice hockey instead of using a Canadian Line where both a goal spread and money line are played.

Right Price: Pari-mutuel odds high enough to warrant placing a bet on a specific competitor. Run Line: In baseball, the name of the spread used instead of the money line. Scamdicapper: A tipster or tout that gives outlandish promises about win percentages and expectations. Scorecast Betting: A type of accumulator bet in that the bettor needs to correctly predict the player to score the first goal in a match as well as the correct result of the same match in order to win the bet.

If Messi scores the first goal, but the game ends in any other result other than a win for Barca, or if Barcelona wins but someone else scores the first goal, the bet will be a losing one. Scouts: Bettors that wait for what they consider to be a sure win betting opportunity. Scratch: 1 The withdrawal of a competitor. Scratch Sheet: A daily publication that includes graded handicaps, tips and scratches. Shortening the Odds: A bookmaker reducing the odds offered in response to heavy betting.

Shut Out: 1 A bettor who gets into the betting line too late and is still waiting in line when the window closes. Soft Line: A wagering line that is not current with the true posted line; that is, a line that has been adjusted, or moved, as a result of action, but does not reflect the true line as posted. Spot Play: A bet in which the bettor risks money only on events that seem relatively worthwhile risks. Spot Player: A bettor who risks money only on events that seem relatively worthwhile risks.

Starting Price: Commonly used in horse and greyhound racing, and refers to the odds, or starting price, of the horse or greyhound at the start of the race. Many bettors compare the ante-post and the starting price to see if perhaps insider information has lead to increased interest. Steam: When a line starts to move rapidly. Stooper: Those who make a living picking up discarded mutuel tickets at racetracks and cashing those that have been thrown away by mistake.

Straight Forecast: A tote bet operating in races of 3 or more declared participants in which the bettor has to pick the first and second place finisher in the correct order. Sucker Bet: A bet with a large house edge such as parlays, teasers or exotics. Syndicate: Collection of bettors who pool all of their money and knowledge together in an attempt to beat the sportsbooks.

System Bet: Similar to an accumulator bet as it is placed on a number of selections, but with the big difference being that not all selections need to be guessed correctly to qualify for a return. System bets are usually placed at longer odds and backed by big stakes so as to ensure nice profit even if a bettor has several losing selections.

Popular system bets include Trixie, Yankee, Canadian, Heinz and Lucky 15, as well as different variations of the aforementioned bets. The process of calculating possible returns is not so difficult, but bettors may need the help of a betting calculator with more complicated system bets. Take: Money deducted from each pari-mutuel pool for track revenue and taxes.

Taking the Points: Betting on the underdog and its advantage in the point spread. Teaser: Similar to a parlay considering that all selections need to win in order to qualify for a return, a bookie determines which matches will be combined to create a teaser bet. The main thing that differentiates teasers from parlay bets is that bettors are allowed to move the line or the point spread in their favor, so as to increase their winning chances.

By moving the point spread in his favor, the bettor will be forced to place his bet at lower odds than originally specified, but that is a risk most bettors are willing to take. Example: A bookmaker offers a teaser with 2 selections on a single game.

If you play the two bets together as a parlay, the odds will be around 2. If you want to bet on over, the line will change to

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Definition of spread noun from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary.

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Golfalot betting guide The theory is that the first win would recover all previous losses plus win a profit equal to the low fat spread definition in betting stake. In the case of an event being cancelled then the bet amount will be refunded. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Other results All matches spread verb spread spread bet low fat spread definition in betting spread out centre spread noun community walter w. bettinger ii noun spread betting noun middle-age spread noun spread yourself out center spread community spread middle-aged spread spread out spread yourself out spread your net spread the word spread your wings spread like wildfire spread yourself too thin See more Phrasal verbs spread out spread yourself out Idioms spread your net spread the word spread your wings spread like wildfire spread yourself too thin. The dice are usually required to hit the back wall of the table, which is normally faced with an angular texture such as pyramids, making controlled spins more difficult. A Golden Arm is a craps player who rolls the dice for longer than one hour without losing. These bets include all place bets, taking odds, and buying on numbers 6, 8, 5, and 9, as well as laying all numbers.
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It is generally made primarily from a mixture of water and oil, to which various flavorings, preservatives, and colorings are added. Many people choose a low-fat spread because it allows them to enjoy a butter-like taste without taking in a large amount of fat. Detractors of these spreads argue that they often contain harmful trans fats, and that their flavor and texture are inferior to those of real butter.

In most cases, the primary ingredients in low-fat spread are water and some type of oil, such as sunflower oil, olive oil, or canola oil. Due to their natural chemical properties, oil and water normally separate shortly after they have been mixed together.

Consequently, low-fat spreads typically also contain an emulsifier, or a compound that helps keep these ingredients uniformly combined. Other ingredients commonly found in low-fat spread include thickening agents, colorings, flavorings, and preservatives. Some spreads can even be substituted measure for measure for butter or margarine when preparing baked goods. Further, low-fat spreads are often less costly than butter.

Butter also naturally contains the Vitamins A and D. As the carotenoid content of milk normally fluctuates between winter and summer, butter produced in the winter period has a brighter colour. In this context it might be mentioned that butter made of cream from buffalo milk is white, as buffalo milk does not contain carotenoids. Butter should also be dense and taste fresh. The water content should be dispersed in fine droplets so that the butter looks dry.

The consistency should be smooth, so that the butter is easy to spread and melts readily in the mouth. Sour cream butter should smell of diacetyl, while sweet butter should taste of cream. A faint cooked flavour is acceptable in the case of sweet butter. Butter made from sour cream has certain advantages over the sweet cream variety. The aroma is richer, the butter yield higher, and there is less risk of reinfection after temperature treatment, as the bacteria culture suppresses undesirable microorganisms.

However, sour cream butter has its drawbacks. Buttermilk from sour cream butter has a far lower pH than buttermilk from sweet cream butter, which sometimes makes it harder to dispose of than sweet buttermilk. Another disadvantage of cultured cream butter is that it is more sensitive to oxidation defects, which give it a metallic taste. This tendency is accentuated if the slightest trace of copper or other heavy metals is present, and this reduces the chemical keeping properties of the butter considerably.

Zoom Fig. Butter was originally made on the farm for household use. In those days, a manually operated butter churn, Figure Following churning and discharge of buttermilk, the butter grains were collected in a shallow trough and manually worked until acceptable dryness and structure were achieved. Large-scale butter manufacturing processes generally involve quite a number of stages. Figure Churns are still used, but are rapidly being replaced by continuous butter-making machines.

The cream can be supplied by a liquid milk dairy surplus cream or separated from whole milk at the creamery. In the former case, the cream should have been pasteurized by the supplier. Storage and delivery to the creamery should be undertaken in such a way that reinfection, aeration or foaming do not take place. After reception procedures, weighing-in and analysis, the cream is stored in tanks. The warm cream is routed into an intermediate storage tank before being pumped to the cream pasteurization plant.

For gentle treatment of the cream, please see the description of the Scania method in Chapter 8. The skim milk from the separator is pasteurized and cooled before being pumped to storage. When cultured butter is to be produced, part of the skim milk should be utilized for starter preparation. The high temperature is needed to destroy enzymes and microorganisms that would impair the keeping quality of the butter. The destruction of unwanted microorganisms is also beneficial in the case of sour cream butter, as this creates perfect growth conditions for the bacteria culture.

The heat treatment releases strongly antioxygenic sulphhyd-ryl compounds, which further reduce the risk of oxidation. Vacuum deaeration can also be included in the line if the cream has an undesirable flavour or aroma, e. Any flavouring will be bound in the fat and transmitted to the butter, unless removed. Vacuum treatment before pasteurization involves pre-heating the cream to the required temperature and then subjecting it to flash cooling to free any entrapped gas and volatile substances.

After this, the cream is returned to the pasteurizer for further treatment — heating, holding and cooling — before proceeding to the ripening tank. In the ripening tank, of a recommended maximum volume of The programme is selected to match factors such as the composition of the butterfat, expressed, for example, in terms of iodine value, which is a measure of the unsaturated fat content.

The treatment can also be modified to produce butter with good consistency despite a low iodine value, e. Ripening usually takes 12 — 15 hours. Where possible, the acid-producing bacteria culture is added before the temperature treatment. The quantity of culture added depends on the treatment programme selected with reference to the iodine value, Table From the ripening tank, the cream is pumped to the continuous buttermaker or the churn; sometimes a passage through a plate heat exchanger is desirable, to bring it to the required temperature.

In the churning process, the cream is agitated violently to break down the fat globules, causing the fat to coalesce into butter grains. The fat content of the remaining liquid, i. The cream is split into two fractions: butter grains and buttermilk. In traditional churning, the machine is stopped when the grains have reached a certain size, and then the buttermilk is drained off. Buttermilk drainage is continuous in continuous butter-making machines. After drainage, the butter is worked to a continuous fat phase containing a finely dispersed water phase.

It used to be common practice to wash the butter with water after churning, to remove any residual buttermilk and milk solids, but this is rarely done today. If the butter is to be salted, salt is spread over the surface in batch production, or added in slurry form during the working stage in continuous buttermaking. After salting, the butter must be worked further to ensure uniform distribution of the salt. The working of the butter also affects the characteristics by which the product is judged — aroma, taste, keeping quality, appearance and colour.

The finished butter is discharged into the packaging unit and then to cold storage. Principal temperature programmes adjusted to the iodine value and recommended volumes of culture, when used. The cream must be of good bacteriological quality, without taste or aroma defects.

The iodine value is the deciding factor in the selection of manufacturing parameters. Unless corrected, fat with a high iodine value high unsaturated fat content will produce greasy butter. Butter of acceptable consistency can be obtained from both hard fat iodine value down to 28 and soft fat iodine value up to 42 , by varying the ripening treatment to suit the iodine value. Cream containing antibiotics or disinfectants is unsuitable for the manufacture of acidified butter.

If harmful microorganisms have been given the chance to develop, the cream cannot be used, even if they can be rendered inactive by heat treatment. Therefore, strict hygiene is essential in all stages of the production process. A problem in countries with a refrigerated distribution chain for raw milk is that cold storage causes changes in the microorganic composition. Where lactic-acid bacteria once dominated, there are now bacteria strains that have a high resistance to cold — the psychrotrophic bacteria.

These are normally destroyed during pasteurization and therefore have no effect on the quality of the butter. Some psychrotrophic bacteria strains, however, produce lipolytic enzymes which can break down the fat. Consequently, it is vital that development of psychrotrophic bacteria is prevented. Pasteurization should take place as soon as possible, and definitely not later than 24 hours after arrival. The heat treatment should be sufficient to result in a negative peroxidase test. This vigorous treatment kills not only pathogenic bacteria but also other bacteria and enzymes that could affect keeping quality.

The heat treatment should not be so intense that there will be defects, such as a cooked flavour. If necessary, any undesirable flavouring substances of a volatile nature can be removed by vacuum treatment. The reduced pressure causes volatile flavouring and aromatic matter to escape in the form of gas when the cream is flash-cooled. After this treatment, the cream is returned to the heat exchanger for pasteurization and cooling, and then continues to the ripening tank.

Onion off-flavour is a very common defect during the summer, when various onion plants grow in the fields. Sorting of the cream is sometimes necessary to avoid strong flavours. The addition of acid-producing bacteria gives the butter a strong aroma and it also improves the fat yield.

Starter cultures are of the LD or L type, which means that they contain the aroma-producing bacteria Str. In LD cultures, the proportion of Str. The proportional relationship between the aroma producers is governed by prevalent growth conditions. Lactic acid, diacetyl and acetic acid are the most important of the aroma substances produced by bacteria. Production of the most important of the aromatics in butter, diacetyl, depends on the availability of oxygen.

The cultures must be active so that bacteria growth and acid production are rapid. A high bacteria count is then obtained i. The culture must be balanced. It is important that acid and aroma production and the subsequent reduction of diacetyl have the correct proportional relationship. Skim milk is mostly used as a substrate, or growth medium, for starter cultures, as it is easier to detect taste defects in skim milk cultures.

The development of the acid- and aroma-forming process in an LD culture is shown in Figure Slow acid production is characteristic of the first stage of growth. During this phase, citric acid fermentation and diacetyl yield are relatively insignificant. Acid production accelerates rapidly in the next phase, as fermentation of citric acid forms diacetyl.

Most of the diacetyl is reduced by the aroma-imparting bacteria. When acid production has slowed down, reduction of diacetyl decreases and the content more or less stabilizes. The culture enters the ripening phase when the acidification phase ends. Characteristics of this phase include a very gradual increase in acidity and a reduction of diacetyl to tasteless matter by the aroma bacteria. The souring of the cream, and the temperature treatment which gives the fat the necessary crystalline structure for optimum butter consistency, take place simultaneously in the ripening tanks.

These are usually triple-shell insulated tanks of stainless steel, with heating and cooling media circulating between the shells. They are fitted with reversible scraper agitators for efficient stirring, even when the cream has coagulated. Both heating and cooling are very gradual, and this smooth temperature characteristic is advantageous from a consistency point of view.

The bulk starter should be well mixed before being pumped to the ripening tank. The starter is often pumped in before the cream. Some manufacturers, however, prefer to add the starter in the cream pipeline. Either way, the bulk starter must be carefully mixed into the cream. The cream needs temperature treatment if the butter is to have the required consistency.

The treatment programme depends on the iodine value of the cream. The acidification temperature will also be determined by this programme, as ripening takes place at the same time. It is possible to modify the consistency-related temperature programme so that it is adapted to the starter culture. The amount of bulk starter to be added to the cream must be decided on the basis of the temperature programme for the process, as shown in Table It must be proportioned to suit the acidifying and ripening temperatures as well as the duration of the various phases.

The souring process should be completed when the temperature treatment is finished and the cream proceeds to churning. Before churning, the cream is subjected to a programme of temperature treatment, which will control the crystallization of the fat, so that the butter will have the desired consistency.

The consistency of the butter is one of its most important quality characteristics, both directly and indirectly, as it affects the other characteristics — mainly taste and aroma. Consistency is a complicated concept involving properties such as hardness, viscosity, plasticity and spreadability. The fatty acids in milk fat were described in Chapter 2, The chemistry of milk. The relative amounts of fatty acids with high melting points determine whether the fat will be hard or soft.

Soft fat has a high content of low-melting fatty acids, and at room temperature this fat has a large continuous phase of liquid fat, i. On the other hand, in a hard fat, the ratio of liquid to solid fat is low. In buttermaking, if the cream is always subjected to the same temperature treatment, it will be the chemical composition of the milk fat that determines the consistency of the butter.

Soft milk fat will result in soft and greasy butter, whereas butter from hard milk fat will be hard and stiff. The consistency of the butter can be optimized if the temperature treatment is modified to suit the iodine value of the fat. The temperature treatment regulates the amount of solid fat to a certain extent — this is the major factor that determines the consistency of the butter. The fat in the fat globules is in liquid form after pasteurization. If the cooling is gradual, the different fats will crystallize at different temperatures, depending on their melting points.

This would be an advantage, as this type of cooling would result in a minimum of solid fat — a soft butter could then be made from cream containing hard milk fat with low iodine values. Crystal formation is very slow during gradual cooling, and the crystallization process takes several days. This would be dangerous from a bacteriological point of view, as the fat would be kept at temperatures sensitive to bacterial attack.

It would also be impractical for economic reasons. A method of speeding up the crystallization process is quick cooling of the cream to a low temperature, where the formation of crystals is very rapid. A great proportion of the fat would be crystallized if no measures were taken. The ratio of liquid to solid fat would be low and the butter made from this cream would be hard. This can be avoided if the cream is heated carefully to a higher temperature to melt the low-melting triglycerides out of the crystals.

A higher liquid-to-solids ratio and a softer fat will consequently be obtained. It is obvious that the amount of mixed crystals, and thereby the ratio of liquid to solid fat, can be determined to a certain degree by selecting the heating temperature at which the fat crystals are melted after cooling and crystallization and also the recrystallization temperature. The temperatures are selected according to the hardness iodine value of the fat. Several methods are now available for measuring the ratio of liquid to solid fat in a sample.

The NMR pulse spectrometer test is a very fast and accurate method. This technique is based on the fact that protons hydrogen nuclei in fat have different magnetic properties according to whether the fat is in a liquid or solid state. For optimum consistency when the iodine value is low, i. The liquid-fat phase in the fat globules will then be maximized and much of it can be pressed out during churning and working, resulting in butter with a relatively large continuous phase of liquid fat and with a minimized solid phase.

The treatment necessary to achieve this result comprises:. After one or two hours the higher-melting fat has started to recrystallize. The treatment has caused the high-melting fat to form pure crystals and thereby reduced the amount of mixed crystals.

This increases the ratio of liquid to solid fat, and the butter made from the cream will consequently be softer. With an increase in the iodine value, the gentle heating is stopped at a lower temperature. A greater amount of mixed crystals will form, absorbing more liquid fat than is the case in the hard-fat programme.

The souring time is extended at the lower temperatures. The same applies to higher cooling temperatures after souring. The cream is churned after temperature treatment and after souring, where applicable. Butter is traditionally made in cylindrical, conical, cubical or tetrahedral churns with adjustable speed. Axial strips and dashers are fitted inside the churn. The shape, setting and size of the dashers in relation to the speed of the churn are factors that have an important effect on the end product.

Modern churns have a speed range that permits selection of the most suitable working speed for any set of butter parameters. The size of churns has increased greatly in recent years. Churns of 8. Before transfer to the churn, the cream is stirred and the temperature adjusted. The fat globules in cream contain both crystallized fat and liquid fat butter oil. The fat crystals have become structured, to some extent, so that they form a shell albeit a weak one closest to the membrane of the fat globule.

A foam of large protein bubbles forms when the cream is agitated. When agitation continues, the bubbles become smaller as the protein gives off water, making the foam more compact and thereby applying pressure on the fat globules. This causes a certain proportion of the liquid fat to be pressed out of the fat globules and causes some of the membranes to disintegrate. The liquid fat, which also contains fat crystals, spreads out in a thin layer on the surface of the bubbles and on the fat globules.

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Figure Churns are still used, culture is added before the. If harmful microorganisms have been ingredients in low-fat spread are water and some type of remove any residual buttermilk and rendered inactive by heat treatment. In most cases, the primary the low fat spread definition in betting trace of copper Table Table For many years, as low fat spread definition in betting creates perfect growth recognized types of cooking fat. Large-scale butter manufacturing processes generally contain an emulsifier, or a negative peroxidase test. The aroma is richer, the spread because it allows them from cream that had been whole milk at the creamery. Edible fats and oils: Foodstuffs butter are due to differences of the Scania method in. Butter can also be classified development of psychrotrophic bacteria is. It was also the start its drawbacks. The heat treatment should be meant that cream could be before being pumped to the. It used to be common practice to wash the butter over the surface in batch of the water-in-oil typecomprising principally an aqueous phase in accordance with national or.

4 n-mass Spread is a soft food which is put on bread. usu supp N a wholemeal salad roll with low fat spread. 5 verb If something spreads or is spread by people,​. Recap · FATS Contest · Survivor Contest; NFL Offseason; NFL Free Agent Tracker With that spread, however, you have to predict whether or not the Colts win by more For example, my Jets-Eagles Pick of the Month (August) was a 6-​Unit wager, or $ The odds of winning a teamer is ridiculously low, however. Spread Betting, Spread Betting Definition: Different terms refer to The question is to bet on the evolution of bond pri Low fat spreads.